第三期 2002年10月
編者的話 首頁

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>> 閱讀習慣從小培養 文.楊秀玲
 

grip with their hands, roll over, and make noises.

By the age of two, they can walk and talk.

孩子除了學說單詞“baby” “hand” “mother” “father”,數數字,“one” “two” “three” ,也學叫“daddy”“mommy”。還可以學動詞“smile” “laugh” “walk” “talk” “make”以及“grow”。全篇是極淺易的英文,還是一篇生理和性教育的好教材,內容很健康,很有趣。這本【初級牛津百科全書】,成年人拿來翻開,趣味盈盈,仍覺得很新鮮,孩子可以由一、兩歲,一直翻看到幾十歲。

2. A World of Fairy Tales【童話世界】(By James Riordan, London: Hamlyn, 1982)

Let us go forth,

The teller of tales, and

Seize whatever prey the heart long for, and

Have no fear.

Everything exists,

Everything is true, and

The earth is only a little dust

Under our feet. (W. B. Yeats)

這本童話集的引言是著名英國詩人葉慈的一首詩。這裡有孩子學說的單詞 "heart" "foot"。當然,葉慈的詩歌是激勵教孩子看圖識字和講故事的父母和老師,或其他成年人,也可讀來給孩子聽。而這本童話集,講述著天下許多美好的事物,孩子會百聽不厭的,也許聽著,聽著,就進入美妙的夢鄉,明晚還追你講故事。

3. Do you know about the stars?【天上星星知多少?】(Illustrated by Roger Hall, London: Collins 1964)

The stars you see

When you are young

Will still be there

When you are old.

But don't think

They don't change - they change all the time.

Getting to know about the stars

Can be very exciting.

孩子也指著天上的、或書畫堛漪P星學說“stars”。這個詞對幼兒來說,很容易上口,還可以配合唱兒歌。同時,也培養孩子的想像力和求知慾,學習科普知識。

4. Robinson Crusoe【魯賓遜漂流記】(Simplified, Longman, 1987)

Daniel Defoe

Chapter 1 The Island

I go to sea

I was born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a good family. At a very early age I wanted to go to sea. My father was a wise man, and he begged me not to do so. For a time I decided not to think of it any more. But one day in the city of Hull I met a friend who was going to sea on his father's ship.

He asked me to go with him. Then, without asking my father, without asking God's blessing, without any thought of the result, I went on board the ship.

The ship is lost in a storm

After a few days there came a fearful storm. The wind and waves threw the ship this way and that for twelve days. The ship was badly broken and a lot of water was coming in. Then one of our men , early in the morning, cried out ,"Land!"Just after that, the ship ran on to some sand. The waves came over the ship, and we knew that very soon it would be broken to pieces.

當年家喻戶曉的冒險故事,Longman改寫成簡寫本提供給初學者,雖然英文非常淺易,仍然引人入勝,令人陶醉。若您就讀高小或初中的孩子學習寫作文時,能照葫蘆畫瓢,再加想像力,寫出:

I was born in the year 1992, in the city of Macao, of a good family. My father was a wise man. ...

他的英文作文可拿滿分的!讀和寫的能力相輔相成的道理是人人皆知的。

5. 古典漢詩英譯(Classical Chinese Poems translated into English)(漢英對照)新編《千家詩》袁行霈主編:許淵沖英譯

(北京中華書局,2000年)

Thoughts on a Still Night

靜夜思 李白

Before my bed a pool of light,

床前明月光,

Can it be frost on the ground?

疑是地上霜。

Looking up, I find the moon bright;

舉頭望明月,

Bowing, in homesickness I'm drowned.

低頭思故鄉。

Spring Morning

春曉 孟浩然

This morn of spring in bed I'm lying,

春眠不覺曉,

Not to awake till birds are crying.

處處聞啼鳥。

After one night of wind and showers,

夜來風雨聲,

How many are the fallen flowers!

花落知多少!

On the Stork Tower

登鸛雀樓 王之渙

The sun along the mountain bows;

白日依山盡,

The Yellow River seawards flows.

黃河入海流。

You will enjoy a grander sight

欲窮千里目,

By climbing to a greater height.

更上一層樓。

Snow on the River

江雪 柳宗元

From hill to hill no bird in flight;

千山鳥飛絕,

From path to path no man in sight.

萬徑人蹤滅。

A lonely fisherman afloat

孤舟蓑笠翁,

Is fishing snow in lonely boat.

獨釣寒江雪。

這些流傳千古、家喻戶曉的不朽詩篇,經過名家高手翻譯成英文,也甚受英語世界的歡迎,讀得津津有味。對中國孩子來說,讀中文只有二十字的絕句,易如反掌。而譯出的英文詩歌,因用詞簡單,多為單音節詞,言語精煉、整齊,跟漢詩一樣,可以背誦,琅琅上口。同時,也從詩情畫意中,體驗人生的真諦,學習做人。若中、英文對照來唸,仔細品味,可謂一舉兩得。

6. Harry Porter (London: Bloomsbury, 2000)

J. K. Rowling


《哈里•波特》這部小說的出現, 給當今孩子們帶來很大激奮。不僅《哈里•波特》這部小說和電影受全球兒童歡迎,還帶引出一、兩部很不錯的其他兒童作品。有些英語教師也試圖用《哈里•波特》作英語閱讀材料,引起很多爭論。當然,《哈里•波特》是用最活潑、最生動、現今學生中最流行、活生生的英語寫成的,生活中的各種情景幾乎都有,學了上口就能用。文體有寓言、敘述、描寫、說明以及如書信類的應用文。也可學到英語日常稱謂、問候、和告別語,對一般的讚揚、 請求作出適當的反應,常見的飲料食品,重要的節日假期,人們的行為舉止、待人接物、生活習俗等等。雖然有那麼多可取之處,但總的來說,對中國多數學生還是難了一些。建議中學生採用“跳讀”的方式,跟上故事情節,從中獲得樂趣,特別感興趣的地方再查詞典細心看。例如,“Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone”可以這樣閱讀:

扉頁上的

For Jessica, who loves stories,

For Anne, who loved them too,

And for Di, who heard this one first.

應該讀,不僅容易,還引起興趣。接著, Chapter One The Boy Who Lived這個“Boy”就是小說的主人公“Harry Potter”應該稍微讀細緻點兒:

Mr and Mrs Durslay, of number four, Privet Drive, were proud to say that they were perfectly normal, thank you very much. ...

Mr Durslay was the director of a firm called Grunnings, which made drills. He was a big, beefy man with hardly any neck, although he did have a very large moustache. Mrs Durslay was thin and blonde and had nearly twice the usual amount of neck, which came in very useful as she spent so much of her time craning over garden fences, spying on the neighbours. The Durslays had a small son called Dudley and in their opinion there was no finer boy anywhere.

The Durslays had everything they wanted, but they also had a secret, and their greatest fear was that somebody would discover it. They didn't think they could bear it if anybody found out about the Potters. Mrs Potter was Mrs Durslay's sister, but they hadn't met for several years; in fact, Mrs Durslay pretended she didn't have a sister, because.... The Durslays knew that the Potters had a small son too, but they had never even seen him...

故事一開頭,介紹 DURSLAY 一家,對故事情節的掌握很重要,因為小主人公 HARRY跟這一家有著千絲萬縷的聯繫,DURSLAY 夫婦的人品、為人也在相當程度上決定了HARRY的命運。特別有趣的是,作者還拿這對夫婦的脖子諷刺、幽默一番,引人入勝。由於英語淺易、簡單,形象生動,很容易引起青少年學生的興趣。

其餘都可以這樣“跳讀”。一般中學生還是需要老師引導、啟迪的。例如,既然DURSLAY太太和HARRY 的媽媽本是親姐妹,她為何佯裝沒有這個妹妹?她明知 妹妹也有個兒子HARRY,又為何從未見面呢?所謂“跳讀”的目的,就是用較快的速度,跟上生動的故事情節,從中獲得樂趣。也許通過適當安排,為初學者改寫成簡寫本或漫畫書,也會有不錯的效果,至少可激發閱讀興趣,逐漸過渡到閱讀原著。

2002年4月6日晚,香港無線明珠台轉播了專訪女作家 ROWLING的紀錄片。據知,這套小說一共有七部,現在已經出了四部,而最後、即第七部的最後一章業已完成,存放在保險箱中。相信 HARRY POTTER熱還會持續。

最後,讓我們家長和教師密切配合,為孩子閱讀創造條件,讓孩子從小、從家媔}始養成良好的閱讀習慣。師生互動,親子閱讀,共同成長進步,為培養孩子可持續發展的能力而共同努力。

(作者為澳門大學教育學院助理教授)

參考資料

1.劉永林等,“信息時代的學習執照”《教育藝術》2002 年 第 一期,51-51頁。楊秀玲,“英語閱讀,家媔}始”2002年3月23日澳門文化廣場書展講座。

2.陳永明,香港 明報副刊“教與思”《教得樂》2002年32期,11頁。


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